The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on two large islands called the British Isles. The larger island is Great Britain, which consists of three parts: England, Scotland and Wales. The smaller island is Ireland and there are about five thousand small islands. The country’s shores are washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Irish Sea.

The English channel separate Great Britain from the continent. The total area of the U.K. is 244.00 square kilometers with a population of 56 million. It is one of the most populated countries in the world. The average density of population is very high: about 220 people per square kilometer. The greater part of the population is urban. About 80 percent of people live in numerous towns and cities. More then seven million people live in London area. Very often the inhabitants of The United Kingdom and Northern Ireland are called English.

The surface of the British Isles varies very mach. There are many mountains in Scotland, Wales and northwest of England but they are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain. The northern part of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. Scotland is also famous for its beautiful lakes, which are called Lochs. The mountains in G.B. are not very high. There are many rivers in G.B., but they are not very long. The Themes is the deepest, the longest and the most important river in England. The climate of G.B. is mild. It is not very cold in winter and hot in summer. The average temperature in January is about 5C above zero. February is the coldest month in the year. The summers are cool and rainy. July is the warmest month. There is much rain and flog in autumn and winter. October is the rainiest month in the year.

The official name of the country we usually call England and occasionally Great Britain is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The U. K. is situated on the group of islands lying just off the mainland of north-western Europe. The British Isles include Great Britain proper, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales.

The southern part of Ireland is the Republic of Eire. Great Britain is separated from the continent by the English Channel, the narrower part of which is called the Strait of Dover. The British Isles are surrounded by the shallow waters of the Irish Sea and the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Channel and the Atlantic Ocean. Britain is comparatively small, but there is hardly a country, in the world where such a variety of scenery can be found. There are wild desolate mountains in the northern Highlands of Scotland - the home of the deer and the eagle.

The Pennine Range in northern England and the Cambrian Mountains in Wales are much lower. In the extreme south of England are the famous chalk hills, some of which form the Dover Cliffs. The southern and south-eastern parts of the island lie in varied lowlands. The rivers of the region are short and of no great importance as waterways.

The longest of them is the "Father of London", the Thames, which is a little over 200 miles. Britain's principal ports are London, Liverpool, Manchester, Hull, Glasgow. They have splendid harbours, for the coast line is very indented. Owing to the shape of the country, any point in Great Britain is no more than 70 miles from the sea. Naturally, it's made the English race a sea - loving one. The warm currents in the Atlantic Ocean influence the climate of Great Britain.

The winters are not severely cold, while summers are rarely hot. The British Isles are well - watered throughout the year. The cloudiness is rather dense, well over half the days of the year are overcast - fogs along the coast frequently hide the sun. The fogs of London, often made severe by mixture with city smoke have a world - wide reputation, but the one not to be envied. Rivers in Great Britain are seldom frozen and generally ice-free. The grass remains green all the year round. Thanks to climatic conditions, Britain in truth looks like one great well-ordered park with its old trees, green meadows and hedges.

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